Testing of Enzolac - Poultry Research Study


May 23, 2002 to June 27, 2002

Title:

EnzoLac Probiotic (Lactic acid, lactobacillus fermentation product, with plant enzymes) effect on poultry performance.

Objective:

The study was a performance trial to assess the efficacy of the feed additive, EnzoLac, on the intake, feed conversion and laying ability of laying hens, specifically Hy-Line layers after the molt.

Testing Procedure:

The research period covered a period prior to the introduction of the EnzoLac and the period where the EnzoLac was introduced into the test barn, which was from May 23, 2002 to June 27, 2002.

Two barns, each capable of holding 160,000 "Hy-Line Layers" were involved in the testing procedure. One barn was used purely as a control, to allow for other variables entering into the research ie. weather conditions. The second barn was the test barn, where Bio-Ag Consultants & Distributors provided a suitable amount of their probiotic, EnzoLac, which was added to the feed for the time period of May 23, 2002, to June 27, 2002. A variety of information was recorded both before and after the introduction of EnzoLac into the feed, as well as specific tests done on manure and eggs from both barns.

The Hy-Line Layers are put through one cycle of egg laying, then put through a molt and brought back for a second laying. These were the birds that were looked at and tested–those after the molt. The control barn was age 71 weeks at the start of recording, 75 weeks at the time of the test. The test barn was age 100 weeks at the start of recording, 104 weeks at the time of the test.

Testing & Record Keeping....Holmes Laboratory, Millersburg, Ohio

Holmes Laboratory tested the manure for its nutritional value, looking at the content of the manure for such elements as–Nitrogen; Copper; Zinc; Iron; Manganese; Potassium; Calcium; Magnesium; Phosphorus; as well as looking at information such as the percentage of total solids and moisture and the pH of the manure.

Midwest Laboratories, Omaha, Nebrska

Midwest Laboratories did the following testing:

  1. Manure Tests

3 samples were taken from each barn, with the following tests performed.

E. coli Quantitative analysis

Salmonella Qualitative analysis

Campylobacter Qualitative analysis

A total of 6 samples was sent of manure each time frame, for a total of 18 samples.

2. Egg Tests

1 sample of 4 eggs from each barn was sent to be tested each time frame as well. The testing done was:

Food Screen(Total Plate count, Total Coliforms, E.coli, Staph. Aureus, Salmonellae, Yeast and Mold)

Midwest Labs had both the manure samples and egg samples arrive at their lab for testing within 24 hours of the time they are collected.

Timetable For Samples:

Samples were sent to the labs on the following timetable:

Holmes Laboratory, Millersburg, Ohio

June 13, 2002, both control barn and test barn

July 10, 2002, both control barn and test barn

Midwest Laboratories, Omaha, Nebraska

June 6, 2002, both control barn and test barn

June 19, 2002, both control barn and test barn

July 9, 2002, both control barn and test barn

On - Farm records:

The owners of the farm kept meticulous records of their barns and recorded the following information for a suitable time frame prior to the test time frame:

Average # of Birds per barn

Amount of feed consumed

Amount of eggs produced

% mortality

Other information deemed relevant by any/all partners not identified above

EnzoLac was then fed for one month time frame, at the rate of two pounds per ton of completed feed (a mash mixed on the farm by the farm owners) to the birds in the test barn, with the control barn receiving a comparable mash, less the EnzoLac

After feeding the month, the same information recorded above, namely–

Average # of Birds per barn

Amount of feed consumed

Amount of eggs produced

% mortality

Other information deemed relevant by any/all partners not identified above was noted.

Results:

The following chart is the information recorded for each barn.

BARN INFORMATION
.
Control Barn
Control Barn
Test Barn
Test Barn
Test Barn
Item
5/21/02
6/28/02
5/21/02
6/28/02
7/21/02
Age of Birds
71 Weeks
75 Weeks
100 Weeks
104 Weeks
.
Average Bird Count
140,585
138,509
117,575
112,689
.
Feed Consumed - lb/100 Birds
21.7
21
22.4
22.6
.
Eggs Produced - Percentage
66
58
78
79.3
.
Percentage Mortality
0.20%
0.29%
0.64%
057%
0.23%

 

The amount of feed consumed for the control barn was 21.7 lb per 100 birds to start, changing to 21 lb per 100 birds during the test. For the test barn, feed consumed rose from 22.4 to 22.6 lb per 100 birds.

 

The percentage of eggs produced in the control barn fell from 66% to 58%, a drop of 8%. In the test barn, an increase of 1.3% was noted, moving from 78% to 79.3%

 

The percentage mortality in the control barn rose from 0.20% to 0.29%. In the test barn, mortality dropped from 0.65% to 0.57%. The farm owners reported that on July 21, outside the test time frame, that the mortality had dropped to 0.23%. They felt these results were a carry-over effect still in place from the feeding of EnzoLac.

 

 

Manure Contents Results:

The following chart represents the findings of Holmes Laboratory when it checked the manure.

Manure Content--% Wet Basis
Item
Control Barn
Test Barn

Start

Finish

Start

Finish

pH

8.6

8.0

8.1

6.7

Total Solids %

44.22

36.69

23.51

35.03

Moisture %

55.78

63.31

76.49

64.97

Total Nitrogen %

1.04

1.48

1.35

1.9

Available Nitrogen %

0.52

0.55

0.57

0.72

Ammonia Nitrogen %

1.02

0.32

0.71

0.49

Available Ammonia %

0.51

0.16

0.36

0.25

Organic Nitrogen %

0.02

1.16

0.64

1.42

Available Organic N. %

0.01

0.39

0.21

0.47

Phosphorus %

0.77

0.70

0.47

0.56

P2O5 %

1.76

1.60

1.09

1.28

Potassium %

0.86

0.68

0.53

0.57

K2O %

1.03

0.81

0.64

0.69

Calcium %

5.45

4.22

2.39

4.01

Magnesium %

0.24

0.18

0.14

0.15

Sodium %

0.21

0.20

0.15

0.15

Copper ppm

24

15

13

13

Manganese ppm

169

147

87

153

Zinc ppm

151

124

95

105

Iron ppm
393
363
241
302

When looking at pH, the control barn dropped from 8.6 to 8. The EnzoLac barn dropped a dramatic 1.4, from 8.1 to a low 6.7.

 

 

When looking at the manure content, % Wet Basis, for minerals and trace minerals, the charts show dramatic differences between the control barn and the test barn and between the start and finish of the test period.

 

 

 

When looking at the manure content for nitrogen and ammonia, again dramatic differences were noted between the barns and the time frame from start to finish.

PATHOGENS: THE CHALLENGE

The challenge faced in the agricultural community is the prevention of contamination of farm products with food borne pathogens, such as Salmonella and campylobacter spp.. In relation to, for example, Salmonella, much is known about the sources of infection, the means of transmission, and the management factors necessary for effective control. In chicken flocks, for example, infection can arise from vertical transmission from infected breeders, horizontal transmission from contaminated feed or replacements. Infection can also come from a variety of environmental sources such as wild birds, rodents, insects and other factors that can support the viability of the bacteria. Farm managers have instituted strict bio-security programs to reduce the risks associated with salmonella and other pathogens. Programs such as sanitation and disinfections, vaccinations and other programs have been instituted to minimize pathogens, yet their re-occurrence continues to haunt farm managers. Towards this challenge, Bio-Ag Consultants & Distributors have developed products incorporating a Probiotic, that can assist farm managers in their control programs.

Probiotics:

Probiotics have been described as the opposite of antibiotics. While antibiotics destroy life, probiotics build up or promote life. The function of a probiotic is to improve the growth and development of the normal, desirable microbial population in the gut, allowing them to maintain domination over the undesirable organisms.

A probiotic can be a live (viable) culture of a microbial species, a dead (non-viable) product of microbial fermentation or an extract of plant origin. Our EnzoLac is a microbial growth stimulant manufactured by using a special patented fermentation process, which produces this lactic acid, lactobacillus fermentation product. Plant enzymes are added to this. Enzymes enhance the efficiency of the probiotic and create a balance in the digestive system to ensure optimum health and productivity.

Competitive Exclusion:

The term, "competitive exclusion", is used to describe the process by which beneficial bacteria exclude bad bacteria or pathogens. It implies the prevention of entry and establishment of a bacterial population into the gut. To succeed, the good bacteria must be better suited to establish or maintain itself in that gut environment.

Before the chick hatches, its intestines are sterile but very quickly, after hatching the intestinal microflora is produced. This microflora is a vital part of the bird, both in the digestive process and in the resistence to, even the exclusion of, pathogenic organisms. The young can receive a competitive flora of beneficial bacteria as well as harmful bacteria from the adult and from the environment. Under modern breeding conditions and sanitized housing environments, the establishment of the gut intestinal flora (bacteria) can be delayed, making the young very susceptible to colonization of unwanted, transient bacteria that can be found in the bedding or litter, in pen mates, or in contaminants in feed and/or water.

By utilizing EnzoLac at the very young stage of life, beneficial intestinal flora is established and animals are protected. Further, there is an increased production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate in recipients, which assist in lowering the pH in the intestinal tract. This combination of low pH and high VFA concentrations, creates an environment unfavorable to unwanted bacteria. Another factor to consider, in the mode of action, is the production of antibacterial substances. These include ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, bacterial enzymes, bacteriophages, and bacteriocins, all identified as substances that can inhibit enteropathogens.

 

How It Works:

The normal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract are well known for helping livestock maintain a healthy, growing condition. It is important that these bacteria be established early in life and be well maintained. If the digestive bacteria are not well maintained, the risk of infection and disease is greatly increased. Once the disease organism is established, the animal’s health condition is reduced and sickness, even death, can occur. Probiotics combat pathogenic bacteria in several ways:

  • By competing for nutrients and binding sites on the intestinal mucous membrane
  • By creating an acid local environment that inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria. This takes place through the formation of weak organic acids (eg. lactic acid) during bacterial fermentation (digestion) of fibers and other components of food)
  • The probiotic bacterial cells communicate with the body’s immune system via intestinal mucous membrane cells and can thereby directly influence the immune defense.

By examining eggs and manure samples from both barns, Bio-Ag was able to see the impact the probiotic, EnzoLac, had as a Competitive Exclusion agent in their barn.

EGG CHECK RESULTS:

Midwest Laboratory results for the egg checks done are represented on the following chart:

EGG CHECK - ALL TESTS
Information:
Control Barn
Test Barn
Measurement Units: cfu/g
June 6 Test
June 19 Test
July 9 Test
June 6 Test
June 19 Test
July 9 Test
Mold
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Yeast
250
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Salmonella
Negative
Negative
Negative
Positive
Negative
Negative
Staphylococcus Aureus
600
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Total Coliforms
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
E. Coli
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
Aerobic Plate Count
400,000
60
120
225,000
120
2500

 

MANURE CHECK RESULTS:

MANURE CHECK - ALL TESTS
Information:
Control Barn
Test Barn
June 6 Test
June 19 Test
July 9 Test
June 6 Test
June 19 Test
July 9 Test
Analysis Sample #1
Campylobacter
Positive
Positive
Positive
Positive
Negative
Positive
E.Coli
n.d.
n.d.
>60000
n.d.
n.d.
>60000
Salmonella
Positive
Negative
Negative
Positive
Negative
Negative
Analysis Sample #2
Campylobacter
Positive
Positive
Positive
Positive
Negative
Positive
E.Coli
n.d.
n.d.
>60000
n.d.
n.d.
>60000
Salmonella
Positive
Positive
Negative
Positive
Negative
Negative
Analysis Sample #3
Campylobacter
Positive
Positive
Positive
Positive
Negative
Positive
E.Coli
n.d.
n.d.
>60000
7000
n.d.
>60000
Salmonella
Positive
Positive
Positive
Positive
Positive
Negative

This information speaks loudly about the efficacy of EnzoLac in the test barn, compared to the control barn. Looking at just the test barn, we went from a barn with Positives in all three samples for Campylobacter and Salmonella, with one sample showing E.Coli, shortly after the EnzoLac had been introduced to a barn. In 12 days, the EnzoLac test barn results came in with only one positive for salmonella, with all others registering as not discovered (n.d.) or Negatives for this manure sample. Of note are the results that were noted on the sample after the testing program had concluded on June 27, with the July 9 test. Continued use of EnzoLac is strongly recommended for maximum efficacy results.

COST ANALYSIS:

The following information was provided by the farm owners. The cost structure is based upon a cost of $113.76 per ton of feed provided by the owners from their spreadsheet records. The test barn cost was based upon an additional $6.00 per ton as the cost of the EnzoLac at the prescribed rates. The methods of calculating the information found within the chart are itemized below the chart.

BARN INFORMATION
Item
Control Barn
Control Barn
Test Barn
Test Barn
5/21/02
6/28/02
5/21/02
6/28/02
Average Bird Count
140585
138509
117575
112689
Amount of Feed Consumed - lb/100 Birds
21.7
21
22.4
22.6
Cost of Feed per barn (*)
$1,735.85
$1,655.04
$1,577.57
$1,525.52
Amount of Eggs Produced - Percentage
66.0
58.0
78.0
79.3
Amount of Eggs Produced - Actual
92786.10
80335.22
91708.50
89362.38
Amount of Eggs - Dozen
7732.18
6694.60
7642.38
7446.86
Cost Per Dozen Eggs Produced (#)
$0.224
$0.247
$0.206
$0.205