GLYCOLYTIC ENZYMES AND ENERGY RELEASING PATHWAYS IN ANIMAL AND POULTRY NUTRITION All living things are made up of cells. Although most cells are invisible to the naked eye, they are in fact a universe of life, for the cell is the smallest unit that can carry out all life activities. The science of nutrition is a balancing act which involves supplying the nutrients required for lifestock to maximize it's genetic potential in the production of milk, meat or eggs while maintaining homeostasis within the cell, and therefore insuring long term health and productivity of the animal or bird. As livestock producers to accomplish this in a holistic fashion is essential for economic success, It is therefore important to understand the process involved in converting grain into energy for cellular work.

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GLYCOLYTIC ENZYMES CONVERT STARCH TO GLUCOSE The conversion of starch in carbohydrates, such as grain, to glucose is the first step in this amazing nutritional journey. Actually this is a two step process, which involves two key enzymes alpha-amlylase and alpha-glucosidase , working together with less active beta-amylase and end-and-exo beta-glucanase. The first enzyme alpha-amylase hydrolyzes starch in grain to maltose, the second enzyme alpha- glucosidase hydrolyzes maltose to glucose. Enzymes are actually special protein molecules manufactured by the cell, and in the case of amlylase and glucosidase they are active in the digestive system. They are truly remarkable catalysts in breaking down specific chemical compounds for cellular energy. The rate of these important enzyme reactions are directly proportional to the amount of glycolytic enzymes present. Because cells only produce a fixed amount of these two enzymes they can become limiting factors in nutrition especially in high producing animals demanding the consumption of large quantities of carbohydrates. Therefore the addition of these two starch degrading enzymes to feed rations can have tremendous nutritional benefits. Once glucose is available to cells it can be used to produce energy by the process of aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is a multi-step process in which hydrogen is transferred from glucose to oxygen. During this process, the potential energy of the electrons from hydrogen atoms are used to liberate energy for all aspects of cellular metabolism.
1) Enzymes rule over all other nutrients. Enzymes are responsible for nearly every facet of life and health and far outweigh the importance of every other nutrient.
2) Enzymes are needed to help control all mental and physical functions. Each body cell has in excess of 100,000 enzyme particles necessary for metabolic processes.
3) Enzymes cannot function properly without the presence of other substances which are known as coenzymes. Coenzymes are minerals, vitamins and proteins.
4) Once enzymes have completed their appointed task, they are destroyed. For life to continue, you must have a constant enzyme supply which requires continued replacement of enzymes.
5) Enzymes are found in all living cells including raw foods or those that are cooked at a temperature lower than 116 degrees Fahrenheit. Enzymes begin to perish when the temperature increases beyond 116 degrees. The degree of enzyme destruction is a function of time and temperature.
6) Enzymes are primarily proteins, yet enzymes need amino acids for normal function. Hormones are primarily proteins which require interaction with enzymes to regulate bodily processes.
7) Enzymes aid in transforming proteins into amino acids. Protein does not perform its function unless broken down into amino acids. Amino Acids can be considered as an enzyme carrier whose function is to transport enzymes to various functions in the body.
8) Enzymes help extract minerals from food. Enzymes transform minerals into an alkaline detoxifying agent which combines with acid cellular wastes and toxic settlements within the body, thus neutralizing them and preparing them for elimination.
9) Enzymes use minerals to create an even balance of dissolved solids both inside and outside the cells, thus equalizing both internal and external pressures which we call osmotic equilibrium.
10) Vitamins are required as coenzymes to work with enzymes in every chemical reaction in every cell of the body. Without minerals extracted from food by enzymes, vitamins would be unable to perform their function.
11) An Enzyme deficiency must be carefully considered as a possible precursor of bodily imbalance and consequent disease symptoms.
12) Enzymes are, therefore, justified as a supplemental dietary substance which need is parallel with mineral, vitamin and all other supportive therapies.